From April 17, 1975, until January 7, 1979, the brutal, ultra-Communist Khmer Rouge regime (i.e. the Red Khmer) controlled the whole of Cambodia, then known as ‘Democratic Kampuchea.’ The Khmer Rouge was headed by Saloth Sar, nom de guerre Pol Pot. During their short reign between one and two and a half million Cambodians perished, some killed outright, others dying from disease, malnutrition, neglect, and mistreatment.
Some of the horrific remnants of the Khmer Rouge regime can be seen at the Choeung Ek Memorial (the ‘Killing Fields’) and the Toul Sleng Genocide Museum. Though the Khmer Rouge were driven from power in 1979, they retreated to the mountains and border areas, persisting until their final defeat and dissolution in 1998.
Surviving KR leaders are only now facing the court. Kaing Guek Eav, a.k.a. ‘Duch,’ director of the infamous S-21 prison was found guilty by the ECCC in 2010. Proceedings against other defendants are currently underway. Pol Pot died in 1998, never having faced justice.